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> {{attachment:iso2meshMaxvol.gif}} * FEM meshes with only two compartments: This could be useful for investigating the influence of a specific tissue on the EEG/MEG forward solution or on the source localization, or for analyzing SEEG only within the brain volume. On the left: head and outer skull; On the right: inner and outer skull. <

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> {{attachment:iso2Mesh2layer.gif}} ==== Troubleshooting ==== * '''Tetget failed''': If intersections are present on the surfaces mesh, the iso2mesh FEM mesh generation fails (tetgen). You may need regenerate new surfaces from the MRI. ''' ''' * Alternatively: You may try with the MergSurf option, this option can correct the intersection and create new nodes and elements. However, we do not recommend to use these models for EEG/MEG forward head computations: this is a research topic and it's still under investigation by the FEM communities. == Brain2mesh == [[http://mcx.space/brain2mesh/|Brain2mesh]] is a MATLAB/Octave based 3D mesh generation toolbox dedicated to the creation of high-quality multi-layered brain mesh models. This software is developed by the same team developing Iso2mesh and relies heavily on it. Both are available as a [[https://Tutorials/Plugins|Brainstorm plugins]]. Warning: Requires the '''Imaging Processing Toolbox'''. Brainstorm runs the '''SPM12 '''segmentation routine on the '''T1 '''or '''T1+T2 MRI''' volumes to obtain a 5-tissue classification (white matter, gray matter, CSF, skull and skin), which is then passed to Brain2mesh for 3D meshing. A full example is available in the tutorial [[https://neuroimage.usc.edu/brainstorm/Tutorials/FemTensors#FEM_mesh|FEM tensors estimation]]. This option runs fast, but does not generate good quality cortex surfaces, which are needed for the full cortically-constrained source estimation pipeline in Brainstorm. At the moment, Brainstorm can only use the default parameters of Brain2mesh. If you need more options to be available from the interface, please contact us on the user forum. {{attachment:brain2meshCall.gif}} {{attachment:brain2meshMesh.gif}} ==== Troubleshooting ==== * '''SPM-related errors''': If you've been trying multiple methods successively, errors mentioning a spm_*.m function could be due to incompatible versions of SPM12 functions in the Matlab path. Brain2mesh, FieldTrip and ROAST all run different versions of SPM12 from the same instance of Matlab. Solution: '''Restart Matlab''' to get a fresh workspace. == SimNIBS == [[https://simnibs.github.io/simnibs|SimNIBS]] software was developed to calculate the electric fields caused by Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (TES) and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). All its software dependencies (CAT12, Netgen, Gmsh, MeshFix) are embedded in the SimNIBS installation, which ensures a high stability and portability. However, it cannot be managed automatically as a plugin by Brainstorm, and needs to be installed manually. See: [[https://simnibs.github.io/simnibs/build/html/installation/simnibs_installer.html|Download and install SimNIBS]]. In Brainstorm, we use the [[https://simnibs.github.io/simnibs/build/html/documentation/command_line/headreco.html|headreco]] pipeline to process '''T1''' or '''T1+T2 MRI''' volumes (T1 is required, [[https://simnibs.github.io/simnibs/build/html/tutorial/head_meshing.html|T2 is highly recommended]]). This pipeline generates the highest-quality tetrahedral FEM mesh we can get from Brainstorm. It calls internally [[https://neuroimage.usc.edu/brainstorm/Tutorials/SegCAT12|CAT12]] for tissue segmentation (white matter, gray matter, CSF, skull and scalp), and therefore gives us access to high-quality cortex surfaces and surface-based atlases. The tetrahedral mesh generation is done with Gmsh, Netgen and MeshFix. Depending on your computer performances, this process will take between 2 to 5 hours. Given the high quality and exhaustivity of its outputs, SimNIBS/headreco is the recommended method for FEM mesh generation in Brainstorm. A full example is available in the tutorial: [[https://neuroimage.usc.edu/brainstorm/Tutorials/FemMedianNerve#FEM_mesh_with_SimNIBS|FEM median nerve example]]. {{attachment:simnibs.gif}} {{attachment:simnibs2.gif}} {{attachment:simnibs3.gif}} ==== Options ==== * '''Vertex density''': Number of node per mm2 of the surface mesh. * '''Number of vertices''': This is not an input parameter of SimNIBS, but a parameter to control how much to downsample the cortex surface generated by CAT12 when importing it into the Brainstorm database. See the [[https://neuroimage.usc.edu/brainstorm/Tutorials/ImportAnatomy#Import_the_anatomy|introduction tutorials]]. ==== Troubleshooting ==== * SimNIBS help: https://simnibs.github.io/simnibs/build/html/installation/throubleshooting.html == ROAST == [[https://www.parralab.org/roast/|ROAST]] is a fully automated, Realistic, vOlumetric Approach to Simulate Transcranial electric stimulation. Open-source and Matlab-based, it is available as a [[https://Tutorials/Plugins|Brainstorm plugin]]. It calls internally SPM8 for tissue segmentation of the '''T1 '''or '''T1+T2 MRI''' volumes to obtain a 5-tissue classification (white matter, gray matter, CSF, skull and skin). Then it relies mostly on iso2mesh for generating a tetrahedral mesh. This option runs fast, but does not generate good quality cortex surfaces, which are needed for the full cortically-constrained source estimation pipeline in Brainstorm. {{attachment:roast1.gif}} {{attachment:roast2.gif}} ==== Troubleshooting ==== * '''SPM-related errors''': If you've been trying multiple methods successively, errors mentioning a spm_*.m function could be due to incompatible versions of SPM12 functions in the Matlab path. Brain2mesh, FieldTrip and ROAST all run different versions of SPM12 from the same instance of Matlab. Solution: '''Restart Matlab''' to get a fresh workspace. == Fieldtrip == [[http://www.fieldtriptoolbox.org/|FieldTrip]] is an open-source Matlab-based toolbox that includes a pipeline dedicated to the generation of [[http://www.fieldtriptoolbox.org/tutorial/headmodel_eeg_fem/|hexahedral FEM mesh]]. It is available as a [[https://Tutorials/Plugins|Brainstorm plugin]]. Brainstorm calls the function [[https://github.com/fieldtrip/fieldtrip/blob/release/ft_volumesegment.m|ft_volumesegment]] on the '''T1 MRI''' volume to obtain a tissue segmentation with 5 layers (white matter, gray matter, CSF, skull and skin), then [[https://github.com/fieldtrip/fieldtrip/blob/release/ft_prepare_mesh.m|ft_prepare_mesh_hexa]] to create a hexahedral mesh. The mesh generation with the method is simple and fast: it downsamples the tissue classification volume, then converts all the voxels to a hexahedral mesh. The quality of the output is relatively poor: the regular meshing of the voxels makes it inefficient for providing a good representation of the tissues geometry with a limited number of elements. {{attachment:fieldtrip1.gif}} {{attachment:fieldtrip2.gif}} ==== Options ==== * '''Downsample volume before meshing''': When processing the tissue classification volume, reduce the number of voxels along each dimension by this factor. * '''Shift nodes to fit geometry''': The option calls the adaptative mesh generation. The process moves the nodes located on the interface either inward or outward in order to fit the geometry as explained in the [[http://www.fieldtriptoolbox.org/tutorial/headmodel_eeg_fem/|FieldTrip tutorial]]. Below, the example from the FieldTrip website, left=original, right=shifted.<

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> {{attachment:nodeShiftFigure.JPG||width="500",height="200"}} ==== Troubleshooting ==== * '''SPM-related errors''': If you've been trying multiple methods successively, errors mentioning a spm_*.m function could be due to incompatible versions of SPM12 functions in the Matlab path. Brain2mesh, FieldTrip and ROAST all run different versions of SPM12 from the same instance of Matlab. Solution: '''Restart Matlab''' to get a fresh workspace. == On the hard drive == Right-click on a FEM mesh > File > View file contents: {{attachment:femContents.gif}} ==== Structure of the FEM mesh files: tess_fem_*.mat ==== * '''Comment''': String displayed in the database explorer to represent the file. * '''Vertices''': [Nvertices x 3], coordinates (x,y,z) of all the nodes of the tetrahedral or hexahedral mesh, in SCS coordinates. * '''Elements''': * Tetrahedral mesh: [Nelements x 4], list of indices corresponding to the rows of the Vertices matrix, each set of 4 connected vertices identifying a tetrahedron of the mesh. * Hexahedral mesh: [Nelements x 8], list of indices corresponding to the rows of the Vertices matrix, each set of 8 connected vertices identifying a hexahedron of the mesh. * '''Tissue''': [Nelements x 1], for each Element, index of the corresponding tissue (e.g. wm=1, gm=2, csf=3, skull=4, scalp=5) * '''TissueLabels''': Labels of the tissues, e.g. {'white' 'gray' 'csf' 'skull' 'scalp'} * '''Tensors''': [Nelements x 12] if tensors are computed, otherwise empty. The 12 values are the eigenvalues and eigenvectors interpolated on each element of the mesh. * '''History''': List of operations performed on this file (menu File > View file history).